• <bdo id="evp7k"><progress id="evp7k"></progress></bdo>
  • <menuitem id="evp7k"><progress id="evp7k"><menuitem id="evp7k"></menuitem></progress></menuitem>
  • <progress id="evp7k"><nobr id="evp7k"></nobr></progress><bdo id="evp7k"><progress id="evp7k"></progress></bdo><tbody id="evp7k"><nobr id="evp7k"></nobr></tbody>
  • <tbody id="evp7k"></tbody>
  • <tbody id="evp7k"></tbody>
  • <tbody id="evp7k"></tbody><nobr id="evp7k"></nobr><track id="evp7k"></track>
    <track id="evp7k"><li id="evp7k"><track id="evp7k"></track></li></track>
  • <tbody id="evp7k"><nobr id="evp7k"></nobr></tbody>
  • 德思特生物專注于中藥(植物藥)物質基礎研究以及天然化合物、中藥化學對照品實物生產供應


    天然藥物活性單體及中藥對照品專業生產供應商


    聯系方式

    028-85003950

    News 德思特新聞

    聯系方式

    服務熱線:

    028-8500-3950

    公司傳真:028-85589956
    公司郵箱:sales@tcmlmt.com
    公司網址:www.mlyangzhi.com
    公司地址:四川省成都市溫江區??坡肺鞫?28號5棟


    公司新聞

    當前位置:首頁德思特新聞 > 公司新聞 >

    以假亂真!真假酸棗仁及其化學成分差異

    時間:2023-08-08   瀏覽次數:  分享到:
    How to Make an Accurate Determination? The Chemical Differences between Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen Are Significant.


    作為中藥治療失眠的首選藥物,酸棗仁已有兩千多年的臨床使用歷史,其道地藥材產地在我國華北地區;理棗仁為近現代用藥,主要分布在我國西南地區。近年來,由于二者性狀特征相近,功效相似,但市場價格差異較大,從而導致理棗仁(甚至枳椇子、染色扁豆)冒充或摻偽酸棗仁的現象較為普遍,在中藥材市場及臨床應用中較為混亂。

    As the first choice of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of insomnia, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) has a clinical history of over 2,000 years, and its authentic medicinal materials are produced in the northern region of China. In contrast, Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS) is a modern medicine mainly distributed in the southwestern region of China. In recent years, due to the similar morphological characteristics and therapeutic effects of the two herbs, but a significant difference in market prices, it has become increasingly common for ZMS to be fraudulently labeled or adulterated as ZSS, leading to confusion in the Chinese herbal medicine market and clinical applications.


    那么,二者究竟有何特點?如何準確區分酸棗仁和理棗仁呢?

    What are the characteristics that distinguish ZSS from ZMS, and how can they be accurately distinguished?



    藥典收錄與性味歸經


    酸棗仁 (Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,ZSS)為鼠李科棗屬植物酸棗 Z. jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow的干燥成熟種子,始載于《神農本草經》,位列上品,歷代本草皆有收錄。其味甘、酸,性平,歸肝、膽、心經,具有養心補肝、寧心安神、斂汗、生津之功效。作為中藥治療失眠的首選藥物,酸棗仁在治療失眠相關的藥方中使用率高達70%以上。

    理棗仁 (Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen,ZMS)為酸棗仁同科同屬植物滇刺棗 Z. mauritiana Lam. 的干燥成熟種子,也稱“滇棗仁”、“緬棗仁”或“進口酸棗仁”等,為近現代用藥,僅在《滇南本草》中有過收錄。其味甘、平,歸心、肝經,具有寧心安神,除煩斂汗的功效。在云南民間被作為治療失眠的習用藥材使用。

    1 Pharmacopoeia Inclusion and Categorization

    ZSS, also known as sour jujube seed, is the dried  mature seed of the plant Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chow, which belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. It was first recorded in the classic Chinese herbal book "Shennong Bencao Jing" and was listed as a top-grade herb. It has been included in nearly all Chinese pharmacopoeias throughout history. ZSS is associated with the liver, gallbladder, and heart meridians,possess the effects of nourishing the heart and liver, calming the mind and tranquilizing the nerves, according to the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicines. As the first choice for treating insomnia in Traditional Chinese Medicines, ZSS is used in over 70% of insomnia-related prescriptions.

    ZMS, also known as "Dian zao ren", "Mian zao ren", or "imported sour jujube kernel", is the dried mature seed of Ziziphi mauritiana Lam., a plant belonging to the same family and genus as ZSS, but a different species. It is a relatively modern medicinal material and has only been recorded in the "Dian Nan Ben Cao". ZMS is associated with the heart and liver meridians, and is known for its calming and sweat-reducing effects, according to TCMs. ZMS is commonly used in Yunnan folk medicine to treat insomnia.   



    2 真假酸棗仁的化學成分差異


    現代藥理學研究表明,酸棗仁和理棗仁均富含三萜皂苷、黃酮、生物堿和核苷類化學成分,但所含化合物的種類和含量差異明顯。

    Chemical Differences between ZSS and ZMS

    It has been discovered by modern pharmacological research that both ZSS and ZMS are rich in triterpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, and nucleoside. However, there are also significant differences in the types and contents of these compounds between ZSS and ZMS.

    2.1 三萜皂苷

    酸棗仁和理棗仁所含三萜皂苷類成分差異較大,酸棗仁中皂苷類成分的種類和數量均明顯多于理棗仁。研究表明,酸棗仁中總皂苷含量約為 0.09%,而理棗仁中總皂苷含量約為0.04%。其中,以酸棗仁皂苷 A為代表的達瑪烷型四環三萜是酸棗仁中含量最多的一類三萜皂苷,酸棗仁皂苷 A和酸棗仁皂苷 B一般被認為酸棗仁的特征成分。而理棗仁的特征成分是白樺酯醛,理棗仁中一般檢測不到酸棗仁皂苷 A,酸棗仁皂苷 B的含量也低于酸棗仁。

    2.1 Triterpenoids

    There is a significant difference in the triterpenoids between ZSS and ZMS. The variety and content of saponins in ZSS are significantly higher than those in ZMS. It is revealed that the total saponins in ZSS is approximately 0.09%, while that in ZMS is approximately 0.04%. Among them, dammarane-type tetracyclic triterpenoids, represented by jujuboside A (JuA), are the most abundant type of triterpenoids in ZSS. JuA and jujuboside B (JuB) are also generally considered to be the characteristic components of ZSS. The characteristic component of ZMS is betulinic aldehyde, and JuA is not detected in ZMS, while the content of JuB is lower than that in ZSS.



    2.2 黃酮類化合物

    酸棗仁中總黃酮含量約為 0.95%,黃酮類成分的結構類型相對豐富,但其總含量明顯低于理棗仁。以芫花素C-6碳苷為骨架的斯皮諾素(spinosin)及其衍生物,為酸棗仁和理棗仁共同的特征類黃酮化合物。據文獻報道,酸棗仁中斯皮諾素、6′′′-芥子酰斯皮諾素、6′′′-阿魏酰斯皮諾素等黃酮類化合物的含量均顯著低于理棗仁。

    2.2 Flavonoids

    With more skeleton types of flavonoids in ZSS, the content of total flavonoids in ZSS is about 0.95%, which is significantly lower than that in ZMS. Spinosin and its derivatives, which have a skeleton of glycoside located at C-6 site of apigenin with a carbon atom, are common flavonoids in ZSS and ZMS. As reported in the literatures, the content of flavonoids such as spinosin, 6′′′-sinapoyl spinosin, and 6′′′-feruloyl spinosin in ZSS are all significantly lower than that in ZMS.

    2.3 生物堿類化合物

    酸棗仁生物堿主要包含異喹啉類生物堿、阿樸菲類生物堿和環肽類生物堿,其中,異喹啉類生物堿含量相對較高;理棗仁中的生物堿主要為環肽類生物堿。酸棗仁中木蘭花堿的含量約為理棗仁的 2 倍,烏藥堿、酸李堿和蓮心季銨堿的含量也明顯高于理棗仁。

    2.3 Alkaloids

    The main alkaloids in ZSS include isoquinoline alkaloids, aporphine alkaloids, and cyclic peptide alkaloids. Among them, the content of isoquinoline alkaloids is higher. In contrast, alkaloids forming as cyclic peptide alkaloids are the main alkaloids in ZMS. The content of magnoflorine in ZSS is about twice that of ZMS. The content of coclaurine, zizyphusine, and lotusine are also significantly higher in ZSS compared to ZMS, respectively.

    2.4 氨基酸和核苷

    酸棗仁和理棗仁均含有豐富的氨基酸。迄今,酸棗仁中已檢測到 22 種氨基酸,理棗仁中已檢測到 19 種氨基酸。酸棗仁中必須氨基酸的總含量約為理棗仁的 8 倍。酸棗仁中精氨酸、天冬酰胺、絲氨酸和酪氨酸等氨基酸含量較高,約占總氨基酸含量的50%,而理棗仁中精氨酸和絲氨酸含量較高。理棗仁中纈氨酸和蛋氨酸含量明顯高于酸棗仁。

    此外,酸棗仁中核苷的種類及含量均多于理棗仁,特別是腺苷、尿苷和腺嘌呤等核苷含量較高,占總核酸和堿基含量的 60%以上。

    2.4 Amino Acids and Nucleoside 

    The content of amino acids in both ZSS and ZMS are rich. To date, 22 types of amino acids have been detected in ZSS and 19 types have been detected in ZMS. The total content of essential amino acids in ZSS is approximately eight times higher than those in ZMS. Arginine, asparagine, serine, and tyrosine are richer in ZSS, accounting for about 50% of the total amino acid content, while the content of arginine and serine are higher in ZMS. However, the contents of methionine and lysine in ZMS are significantly higher than those in ZSS.

    In addition, the types and content of nucleosides in ZSS are higher than those in ZMS, especially adenosine, uridine, and adenine, which account for more than 60% of the total nucleic acid and base.


    綜上,真假酸棗仁的化學成分存在明顯差異,可以通過現代檢測技術快速鑒別。酸棗仁的真偽及質量的準確甄別,有助于維護市場秩序,有助于維護消費者的合法權益,有助于中藥產業的健康發展。

    In conclusion, there are significant chemical differences between ZSS and ZMS, which can be quickly and accurately identified by modern detection technology. It is very important and urgent to accurately distinguish the authenticity and quality of ZSS,which is crucial to maintain normal market order, safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of consumers, and ensure the healthy development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.



    -END-

    熱門新聞

    Afrormosine CAS:550-79-8 中藥對照品標準品

    產品編碼:DA0040產品名稱:Afrormosine英文名:AfrormosineCAS登錄...

    查看更多

    德思特
    版權所有:成都德思特生物技術有限公司 Copyright © 2016   蜀ICP備16023840號-2
    公司地址:四川省成都市溫江區??坡肺鞫?28號5棟
    公司電話:028-85003950

    掃一掃關注德思特
       掃碼關注公眾號
    AV天堂手机版亚洲精品